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Origins

Walking Colorado: An Introduction to the Origins Section

Added by yongli on 01/20/2017 - 11:41, last changed on 06/01/2017 - 15:57
Hundreds of generations of Native American ancestors are represented in Colorado by scatters of artifacts along with the less portable evidence of shelter, the warmth of hearths, storage needs, and symbolic expression. We learn about them through archaeology and indigenous peoples’ oral traditions...

Ancestral Puebloans of the Four Corners Region

Added by yongli on 05/09/2016 - 14:21, last changed on 08/11/2017 - 11:17
Formerly labeled Anasazi, the Ancestral Puebloan culture is the most widely known of the ancient cultures of Colorado. The people who built the cliff dwellings of Mesa Verde and the great houses of Chaco Canyon were subsistence farmers of corn, beans, and squash. The ruins of this culture date to...

Antiquities Act

Added by yongli on 05/03/2016 - 15:16, last changed on 12/01/2016 - 08:29
The Antiquities Act, enacted in 1906, was the United States’ first federal law recognizing the importance and value of the places and objects that represent the country’s history and prehistory. The act provided for protection of archaeological and historic sites, and gave the President authority...

Apishapa Phase

Added by yongli on 08/20/2015 - 16:22, last changed on 05/02/2017 - 15:39
The Apishapa phase is the name given to distinctive archaeological sites found primarily in southeastern Colorado that Native Americans occupied between AD 1050 and 1450. The Apishapa phase is related to both contemporaneous and more recent archaeological sites located in the Texas and Oklahoma...

Bent's Forts

Added by Nick Johnson on 05/06/2016 - 10:52, last changed on 04/07/2017 - 16:43
In the early and mid-nineteenth century, when the western United States was in a seemingly unending state of flux as people competed for dominance over the land and its resources, three men moved to what would eventually become southeastern Colorado and there established a trading and commercial...

Brunot Agreement

Added by yongli on 05/18/2016 - 14:41, last changed on 06/01/2017 - 11:47
The Brunot Agreement between the Utes and the US government in 1873 opened the San Juan Mountains to mining by removing 3.7 million acres (about 5,780 square miles) from the Ute Reservation in western Colorado. Though it removed a large amount of land from the reservation, the agreement still left...

Buckskin Charley

Added by yongli on 03/01/2016 - 16:41, last changed on 09/08/2016 - 18:41
Chief Buckskin Charley (1840–1936), whose Ute name was Sapiah, was the preeminent chief of the Mouache band of the Southern Ute Tribe beginning around 1870. He was born to a Mouache father and an Apache mother, perhaps in the vicinity of Tierra Amarilla, New Mexico. The name Buckskin Charley may...

Buffalo Soldiers

Added by yongli on 06/24/2016 - 15:38, last changed on 12/02/2016 - 17:01
The so-called Buffalo Soldiers were several African American cavalry and infantry regiments that operated in the American West during the late nineteenth century. While there is no evidence that the black troops themselves adopted it, the nickname Buffalo Soldiers is widely believed to have come...

Chaco Canyon

Added by yongli on 08/15/2016 - 13:02, last changed on 06/01/2017 - 15:53
In the eleventh century, Chaco Canyon in northwestern New Mexico was the center of a Native American cultural region about the size of the state of Indiana. It encompassed most of southwestern Colorado, from Chimney Rock National Monument on the east to Far View House at Mesa Verde National Park...

Chimney Rock

Added by yongli on 06/02/2017 - 15:11, last changed on 08/16/2017 - 17:54
Located in the southwest corner of Colorado just north of the New Mexico border, the Chimney Rock Archaeological Area is home to hundreds of archaeological sites. One of these sites, the Chimney Rock Pueblo, is known for its dramatic setting high atop Stollsteimer Mesa, which is marked by two rocky...

Cliff Dwelling

Added by yongli on 11/20/2015 - 14:00, last changed on 05/02/2017 - 15:35
The cliff dwellings of southwestern Colorado are among the world’s greatest archaeological treasures. The term cliff dwelling can be applied to any archaeological site used as a habitation and located in an alcove or rock overhang; however, the most famous cliff dwellings are those created by...

Colorado Rockies

Added by yongli on 02/02/2017 - 15:54, last changed on 05/02/2017 - 15:37
The Colorado Rockies arrived in Denver in 1993 and is the only professional baseball team in the Rocky Mountain West. The Rockies compete in Major League Baseball’s National League West Division. Having made the MLB playoffs three times in their short history, the Rockies lost to the Boston Red Sox...

Colorado Territory

Added by yongli on 02/25/2016 - 14:22, last changed on 09/09/2016 - 09:28
The Territory of Colorado (1861–76) was the short-lived predecessor to the state of Colorado and was created on February 28, 1861. The territory was formed in response to a massive influx of settlers to the Rocky Mountain region seeking their fortunes during the Pikes Peak Gold Rush . The territory...

Colorow

Added by yongli on 01/23/2017 - 15:59, last changed on 05/02/2017 - 15:37
One of the best-known Ute leaders of the nineteenth century, Colorow (c. 1813–88) was involved in many significant events in Colorado history, from his first contact with white Americans during the Colorado Gold Rush to the Meeker Massacre and his namesake “ Colorow’s War ” of 1887. Colorow’s...

Culturally Modified Trees

Added by yongli on 06/23/2016 - 13:38, last changed on 12/02/2016 - 17:01
Culturally Modified Trees (or CMTs) are trees that exhibit peels, ax cuts, delimbing, wood removal, and other cultural modifications. Numerous CMTs are found in the foothills and mountains of Colorado. Research has shown that these trees are artifacts reflecting cultural utilization of trees by...

Dent Site

Added by yongli on 05/09/2016 - 15:35, last changed on 09/09/2016 - 09:28
Early colonists occupied Colorado’s rich and ecologically diverse landscapes in the waning millennia of our planet’s most recent major Ice Age, the Pleistocene, between 14,000 and 12,000 years. Our best-documented evidence for Colorado’s earliest hunter and gatherer inhabitants, people we call...

Earth Lodge

Added by yongli on 06/23/2016 - 16:33, last changed on 12/01/2016 - 08:29
An earth lodge is a distinctive type of timber-frame house built from the early 1400s to the late 1800s by a dozen different Plains Indian tribes. These massive circular structures, often encompassing 1,500 square feet or more, featured four large support posts arranged around a central fireplace...

Far View Sites

Added by yongli on 06/23/2016 - 10:50, last changed on 09/09/2016 - 10:58
The Far View group at Mesa Verde National Park consists of more than twenty sites, five of which have been excavated. Far View House began as an eleventh-century Great House and part of the region centered on Chaco Canyon . Many of the surrounding sites in the Far View Group were first built in the...

Fluted Points

Added by yongli on 12/29/2015 - 12:38, last changed on 09/09/2016 - 10:58
Fluted projectile points represent the earliest North American stone tool technology, although they comprise a small portion of the overall stone technology observed in the New World. These easily recognized spear points represent one form of technology used by the earliest human inhabitants of...

Folsom People

Added by yongli on 06/22/2016 - 14:59, last changed on 12/01/2016 - 08:29
Folsom groups, also called Folsom peoples or Folsom culture, occupied all of Colorado between about 13,000 and 12,000 years ago. They were not the first people in these areas, although they might have been the first in some newly unglaciated portions of the high Rockies. Nevertheless, Folsom...

Fort Davy Crockett

Added by yongli on 05/09/2016 - 16:19, last changed on 09/09/2016 - 10:58
Fort Davy Crockett was one of three known nineteenth-century forts and trading posts on the western side of the Rocky Mountains, in the drainage systems of the Green and Colorado Rivers. From the mid-1830s to 1840, Fort Davy Crockett, along with Fort Uncompahgre and Fort Uintah, served as centers...

Fort Jackson

Added by yongli on 05/03/2016 - 15:46, last changed on 09/09/2016 - 10:58
In the summer of 1837, Henry Fraeb and Peter Sarpy arrived at a location on the South Platte River a few miles north of present-day Fort Lupton . They arrived with $10,909.75 worth of goods for trade with the Cheyenne and Arapaho who frequented the area. Upon arrival, Fraeb and Sarpy began...

Fort Lewis

Added by yongli on 05/16/2016 - 16:16, last changed on 09/09/2016 - 10:58
Fort Lewis was a US Army post in southwest Colorado that operated from 1878 to 1891. The post had two locations: the first, Camp Lewis, in Pagosa Springs and the second south of Hesperus. Camp Lewis was founded in 1878 and moved to Hesperus in 1880 because Pagosa Springs was too far from the Ute...

Fort Uncompahgre

Added by yongli on 08/15/2016 - 16:13, last changed on 09/09/2016 - 10:58
Fort Uncompahgre was constructed in 1828 by Antoine Robidoux , a trader based out of Mexican Santa Fé. The trading post was situated about two miles down from the confluence of the Gunnison and Uncompahgre Rivers near the present-day community of Delta in western Colorado. The precise location of...

Franktown Cave

Added by yongli on 06/22/2016 - 13:17, last changed on 12/01/2016 - 08:29
Located two and a half miles southwest of Franktown, Franktown Cave is a prehistoric archaeological site in a large rockshelter that contained artifacts from prehistoric occupations over 8,000 years. Some of the findings include rare perishable artifacts manufactured from hide, wood and fiber, and...

Fremont Culture

Added by yongli on 05/03/2016 - 15:31, last changed on 05/02/2017 - 15:35
Although it is on the eastern fringe of the area occupied by a people known to archaeology as the Fremont, Colorado is nevertheless important in the Fremont story, since clues to their origins and end are found there. Additionally, the presence of Fremont farmers had a profound influence on the...

George Bent

Added by yongli on 08/11/2016 - 16:23, last changed on 05/02/2017 - 15:39
George Bent (1843–1918) was a half-white, half-Native American soldier who fought in multiple battles for the Confederacy during the Civil War and for the Cheyenne people in various wars of the late nineteenth century. His life reflects the shifts in alliances and the balance of power in Colorado...

Ghost Dance

Added by yongli on 12/29/2015 - 12:16, last changed on 09/09/2016 - 11:40
Ghost Dances are key ceremonies within a broader Native American religious movement that developed in the late nineteenth century in response to the westward expansion of whites. By that time, most Colorado tribes lived on reservations outside of the state. The dances are performed to activate the...

Great House

Added by yongli on 06/23/2016 - 11:22, last changed on 12/01/2016 - 08:29
“Great House” refers to a class of ancient Ancestral Puebloan structures from the ninth through thirteenth century. Great Houses were monumental, geometrically formal constructions, with thick stone masonry walls made with careful craftsmanship. While inspired by the regional center in Chaco Canyon...

Gustaf Nordenskiöld and the Mesa Verde Region

Added by yongli on 08/20/2015 - 09:34, last changed on 05/02/2017 - 15:35
In 1891 the young Swedish scientist Gustaf Nordenskiöld (1868–95) arrived in Colorado, seeking both a cure for his tuberculosis and a look at the wonders of the West. His experiences over the next two years set in motion a series of events that would ultimately lead to the passage of the first...

Hannah Marie Wormington

Added by yongli on 11/19/2015 - 16:19, last changed on 09/09/2016 - 11:40
As a pioneering woman in a field dominated by men, Hannah Marie Wormington (1914–94) carved a scholarly niche for herself on the frontiers of American archaeology. She was a larger-than-life figure whose impact went far beyond the dozens of publications she produced to include mentorship for many...

Homestead

Added by yongli on 11/10/2015 - 13:09, last changed on 09/09/2016 - 11:40
Homesteading was the means by which most of the private land in the wide expanses of the Midwest and western United States came under private ownership. Although the word Homestead can mean a family home and the adjoining land, an ancestral family home, or simply a house, its historical meaning in...

Hovenweep National Monument

Added by yongli on 04/15/2015 - 17:07, last changed on 06/28/2017 - 13:18
Hovenweep National Monument is known for its prehistoric masonry structures clustered around small canyons along the Utah-Colorado border. To protect these unique archaeological resources, Warren G. Harding issued a Presidential Proclamation to establish the monument on March 2, 1923. The monument...

Impact of Disease on Native Americans

Added by yongli on 05/16/2017 - 11:12, last changed on 05/16/2017 - 11:21
Newly introduced diseases originating in Europe, Africa, and Asia swept what is now Colorado in the aftermath of Christopher Columbus’s 1492 voyage. While sparse historical and archaeological records make the effects of the earliest epidemics hard to determine, evidence is better for the eighteenth...

Indian Agencies and Agents

Added by yongli on 03/15/2016 - 12:10, last changed on 05/02/2017 - 15:35
Indian Agencies were established by the US government as part of the formal relationship with Native American groups as it acquired new lands from them. Indian Agents were individuals responsible for cultivating relationships with the Native Americans and extending government policies. As treaties...

Indian Annuities

Added by yongli on 04/27/2017 - 16:36, last changed on 05/02/2017 - 15:37
Annuities were a fixed sum of money or goods that the US government paid to Native Americans on a regular basis for the sale of Indian lands. Treaties with Native Americans typically specified payments to tribes in dollar amounts over a period of years in return for land cessions. The payments were...

John C. Frémont

Added by yongli on 08/03/2016 - 15:52, last changed on 12/01/2016 - 08:29
John Charles Frémont (1813–90) was an American explorer and cartographer for the US Topographical Engineers who crossed Colorado on various expeditions. Between 1842 and 1853, Frémont led five western expeditions with numerous objectives. He was also involved in the Mexican-American War (1846–48)...

Juan Antonio María de Rivera

Added by yongli on 03/01/2016 - 15:44, last changed on 05/31/2017 - 12:41
Juan Antonio María de Rivera (1738–?) was a Spaniard and the first Euro-American to intensively explore the territory that eventually became the state of Colorado. In 1765 he made two trips into western Colorado from New Mexico, traveling as far as the Gunnison River in Delta County. Along the way...

Kit Carson

Added by yongli on 03/14/2016 - 14:16, last changed on 05/02/2017 - 15:39
The remarkable life of Christopher “Kit” Carson (1809–68) represents a broad sweep of Western American history in the early-to-mid nineteenth century. Carson was a Rocky Mountain fur trapper , a guide and scout for the US Army Corps of Topographical Engineers, rancher, Indian agent in New Mexico...

Kivas

Added by yongli on 03/04/2016 - 10:39, last changed on 05/02/2017 - 15:35
Kivas were architecturally unique rooms or structures built by Ancestral Puebloans in southwest Colorado that served important ceremonial and social functions. Architecturally, they are recognized in the archaeological record in southwestern Colorado as far back as AD 500, although there are...

Lafayette Head

Added by yongli on 08/21/2015 - 16:08, last changed on 09/09/2016 - 12:35
Major Lafayette Head (1825–97) was an Indian agent to the Ute tribe for nine years after serving in the Mexican American War. In 1877, he became the first lieutenant governor of Colorado. He was influential in the early development of towns across the San Luis Valley. Born in Hunter County,...

Left Hand (Niwot)

Added by yongli on 03/04/2016 - 09:41, last changed on 01/20/2017 - 12:16
Chief Left Hand (1820s–64) was a prominent Arapaho leader in the mid-1800s, a tumultuous period in Colorado history that followed the 1858 discovery of gold near present-day Denver , on the traditional lands of the Arapaho and Cheyenne . Diplomat, negotiator, linguist, and fluent English speaker,...

Lindenmeier Folsom Site

Added by yongli on 02/23/2016 - 11:02, last changed on 09/09/2016 - 13:36
Lindenmeier is a large Native American archaeological site dating to the end of the Pleistocene epoch, or Ice Age, in northern Larimer County. The site contains stone tools and animal bones interpreted by archaeologists as the fragmentary remains of an ancient campsite and associated bison kill,...

Los Piños Indian Agency

Added by yongli on 04/29/2016 - 15:32, last changed on 09/09/2016 - 13:36
After the Treaty of 1868, the Los Piños Indian Agency became the center of governmental authority for the Uncompahgre Utes on the Ute Indian Reservation in western Colorado. While largely forgotten after its abandonment in 1881, the site of the second iteration of the agency is now under...

Louis Vasquez

Added by yongli on 10/06/2016 - 16:37, last changed on 12/02/2016 - 17:03
Louis Vasquez (1798–1868) was a fur trapper and mountain man active in Colorado during the 1820s and 1830s. He reportedly constructed Fort Convenience and a hunter’s cabin that predated the majority of settlement in the region. One of the Colorado fur trade ’s more successful trappers, Vasquez is...

Mantle's Cave

Added by yongli on 11/16/2015 - 11:17, last changed on 07/20/2017 - 10:00
Mantle’s Cave is the most important Fremont period archaeological site excavated in northwestern Colorado. Artifacts recovered from the cave were instrumental in defining the Fremont culture. Because the cave is dry, artifacts that are not usually seen at archaeological sites were preserved and...

Mesa Verde National Park

Added by yongli on 08/21/2015 - 11:50, last changed on 09/10/2016 - 06:19
Mesa Verde National Park is the largest of the National Park Service parcels protecting cultural resources in Colorado, with nearly 5,000 documented sites, including about 600 cliff dwellings. A majority of the sites are associated with Ancestral Pueblo cultures and date to different time periods,...

Northern Ute People (Uintah and Ouray Reservation)

Added by yongli on 08/20/2015 - 15:20, last changed on 09/10/2016 - 06:19
Although the Ute Indian Tribe (Uintah and Ouray reservation) is the official designation of the tribe today, its members are frequently referred to as Northern Utes to distinguish them from the Southern Ute Indian Tribe and the Ute Mountain Ute Tribe . The Ute Indian Tribe’s reservation is located...

Ouray

Added by yongli on 02/03/2017 - 11:37, last changed on 06/01/2017 - 11:52
Ouray (1833–80), whose name means “Arrow” in the Ute language, was a leader of the Tabeguache (Uncompahgre) band of Ute Indians in Colorado during the late nineteenth century. Even though Ouray had no ultimate authority over Colorado’s Utes and spoke little English, the US government assigned him...

Overland Trail

Added by yongli on 03/11/2016 - 16:42, last changed on 06/01/2017 - 15:49
The Overland Trail was an important nineteenth-century corridor for explorers and traders that ran from Atchison, Kansas, to Fort Bridger, Wyoming. It followed preexisting Native American trails throughout most of its length. The Overland Trail followed the Oregon Trail across Nebraska but veered...

Paleo-Indian Period

Added by yongli on 05/02/2016 - 14:08, last changed on 12/01/2016 - 08:29
The Paleo-Indian period is the era from the end of the Pleistocene (the last Ice Age) to about 9,000 years ago (7000 BC), during which the first people migrated to North and South America. This period is seen through a glass darkly: Paleo-Indian sites are few and scattered, and the material from...

Pike’s Stockade

Added by yongli on 03/07/2016 - 16:17, last changed on 09/10/2016 - 06:43
The Pike Stockade is a reconstruction of a small fortress built by the soldiers of the 1806–7 Zebulon Pike expedition. It is located on the Rio Conejos , a tributary of the Rio Grande , in the San Luis Valley , seventeen miles southeast of Alamosa . Administered by History Colorado , the stockade...

Plains Woodland

Added by yongli on 02/25/2016 - 14:13, last changed on 09/10/2016 - 06:43
The Plains Woodland period covers approximately a thousand years of Colorado prehistory across a large portion of the state. Plains Woodland describes the groups of people occupying much of the western plains from present-day Nebraska and Kansas, west of the Missouri River, to the eastern plains of...

Pueblo of Santa Ana–Tamaya

Added by yongli on 06/27/2016 - 15:56, last changed on 12/01/2016 - 08:29
The Pueblo of Santa Ana is one of the seven Keres-speaking Pueblos that currently inhabit the state of New Mexico. The ruins of the homes of the current inhabitants’ ancestors can be found in what is now Mesa Verde National Park in southwestern Colorado. Archaeological data and pueblo oral history...

Radiocarbon Dating

Added by yongli on 05/02/2016 - 16:39, last changed on 09/10/2016 - 06:43
Radiocarbon dating is the most common technique used in ascertaining the age of archaeological and paleontological sites during the last 45,000 years. Developed by a chemist born in Colorado, there are now commercial and academic laboratories across the globe that conduct radiocarbon dating...

Richard Wetherill

Added by yongli on 10/22/2015 - 10:53, last changed on 12/01/2016 - 08:29
Richard Wetherill (1858–1910) was a nineteenth-century rancher and explorer who made some of the most significant Ancestral Pueblo archaeological discoveries in Colorado and the Four Corners area. He brought these findings to the attention of the general public and led many expeditions that...

Rock Art of Colorado

Added by yongli on 10/29/2015 - 14:34, last changed on 05/02/2017 - 15:35
Colorado is home to a rich variety of prehistoric and historic art carved on cliff sides and boulders. Most rock art is found in river basins. The mountain areas that cut a wide vertical swath through the state are relatively devoid of rock art. There are the two types of rock art: pecked art,...

Samuel Gerish Colley

Added by yongli on 10/21/2015 - 15:28, last changed on 06/29/2017 - 17:31
Holding political offices in Wisconsin and Colorado throughout his life, Samuel G. Colley (1807–90) is best known for serving as Indian Agent for the Upper Arkansas Indian Agency from 1860 to 1865. He was responsible for managing the Cheyenne and Arapaho prior to and during the Colorado War (1863–...

Santa Fé Trail

Added by yongli on 08/21/2015 - 11:11, last changed on 04/15/2017 - 10:37
The Santa Fé Trail was an international overland route of both commerce and social interaction, joining the US prairie state of Missouri with the province of México Nuevo, Mexico, through much of the nineteenth century. Though its specific date of origin is unclear, it appears to have been the...

Sopris Phase

Added by yongli on 11/03/2015 - 10:35, last changed on 05/02/2017 - 15:35
Archaeologists use the term Sopris phase to refer to unique Native American sites found only on the Purgatoire River west of Trinidad, Colorado, and on the upper tributaries of the Canadian River west of Raton and Cimarron, New Mexico (Fig. 1). Sopris people were the only indigenous farmers who...

Spanish Exploration in Southeastern Colorado, 1590–1790

Added by yongli on 09/01/2015 - 14:45, last changed on 09/10/2016 - 07:05
The Spanish effort to conquer and control the lands that would eventually become southeastern Colorado tended to be slow and methodical. The lands claimed by New Spain extended from Panama to the Arctic, although the capital was located in Mexico City. Gradually, rumors of riches in the area of...

Spanish Exploration in Western Colorado

Added by yongli on 07/28/2015 - 11:09, last changed on 08/07/2017 - 16:55
The Spanish colony of New Mexico was founded in 1598. Until 1821, Colorado was part of the extensive Spanish territories governed by the colony. These territories extended far to the north of the New Mexico capital in Santa Fé. In the sixteenth century and later, some Spaniards explored the Great...

Sweat Lodge

Added by yongli on 10/29/2015 - 14:26, last changed on 09/10/2016 - 20:53
Sweat lodges are structures built to contain steam, and they play an important role in the spiritual practices of Colorado’s Native American peoples. The Arapaho , Cheyenne , Navajo , Shoshone, and Ute are historic Native American groups in Colorado who use sweat lodges as a method for cleansing...

The Archaic Period in Colorado

Added by yongli on 08/21/2015 - 14:07, last changed on 09/10/2016 - 20:53
The Archaic period is an era in the human history of Colorado dating from ca. 6500 BC–AD 200. It is one of the three prehistoric periods used by archaeologists to characterize broad cultural changes that occurred throughout the Americas. It was preceded by the Paleo-Indian period (ca. 11,500–7000...

The Denver Museum of Nature & Science

Added by yongli on 11/19/2015 - 16:23, last changed on 02/20/2017 - 13:08
The Denver Museum of Nature & Science (DMNS) is the largest natural history museum between Chicago and the West Coast of the United States. Incorporated on December 6, 1900 as the Colorado Museum of Natural History, the museum was known as the Denver Museum of Natural History throughout much of...

The Formative Period in Prehistory

Added by yongli on 11/03/2015 - 10:09, last changed on 05/02/2017 - 15:35
The Formative is the last of several periods in a sequence of cultural development that traces the overall progression from stone-tool-using, hunter- gatherer societies to fully developed agricultural societies. The process that occurred is analogous to the Old World’s “Neolithic Revolution.” It is...

The Fur Trade in Colorado

Added by yongli on 10/30/2015 - 13:26, last changed on 05/02/2017 - 15:39
The trading of animal skins has been a prominent activity throughout the known human occupation of Colorado. These skins—as hides, furs, or robes—provided protection from the elements as well as a valuable commodity traded for economic gain; their trade strengthened and maintained political...

The Gateway Tradition

Added by yongli on 11/13/2015 - 09:32, last changed on 07/20/2017 - 09:53
The Gateway tradition refers to a set of archaeological sites within western Montrose and San Miguel Counties, Colorado, that appear similar to Pueblo II –period (AD 900–1150) sites to the south in the core homeland of the Ancestral Puebloans (Figs. 1 and 2). The sites in Montrose and San Miguel...

Tipi

Added by yongli on 12/28/2015 - 11:20, last changed on 12/01/2016 - 08:29
The tipi, or tepee, is an iconic form of Native American housing. It has a long history of use throughout Colorado and the western plains of North America. Sturdy and secure yet portable, the hide-covered tipi has been an ideal shelter for millennia among mobile human groups. The term comes from...

Treaty of Fort Wise

Added by yongli on 08/21/2015 - 16:14, last changed on 09/10/2016 - 21:06
The Treaty of Fort Wise was an agreement between the US government and the Cheyenne and Arapaho people who lived on the western Great Plains in present-day Colorado, Kansas, Nebraska, and Wyoming. The treaty was signed in 1861 and reduced the territorial lands previously granted to the Cheyenne and...

Tree-Ring Dating

Added by yongli on 02/25/2016 - 13:19, last changed on 09/10/2016 - 21:06
Tree-ring dating is formally known as “dendrochronology” (literally, the study of tree time). It is the science of assigning calendar-year dates to the growth rings of trees, and Colorado figures prominently in its development and application in archaeology and other disciplines. Uses Tree-ring...

Upper Republican and Itskari Cultures

Added by yongli on 10/22/2015 - 15:03, last changed on 09/10/2016 - 21:06
Upper Republican is a name archaeologists use for a prehistoric cultural group that occupied the upper Republican River area in northeast Colorado, western Nebraska, northern Kansas, and southeast Wyoming from AD 1100–1300. As a phase of a larger cultural tradition, the Central Plains tradition,...

Vision Quest

Added by yongli on 11/02/2015 - 16:36, last changed on 09/10/2016 - 21:06
The vision quest is a rite of passage practiced by Native American tribes of the Plains and Great Basin groups such as the Eastern Shoshone . Vision quests are not well documented for the Ute Native Americans, although a few shamans might have performed the ritual. Archaeologists and...

White River Ute Indian Agency

Added by yongli on 04/29/2016 - 15:38, last changed on 09/10/2016 - 21:06
The White River Ute Agency at Meeker , Colorado was established at the same time as the first Los Piños Agency under provisions of the Treaty of 1868 . The agency was intended to serve the White River Ute band as well as some of the other bands from northwestern Colorado. As the site of the Meeker...

Wickiups and Other Wooden Features

Added by yongli on 05/02/2016 - 16:55, last changed on 12/01/2016 - 08:29
Wickiups were temporary conical and domed shelters constructed by the Native American inhabitants of Colorado for millennia. Because of the perishable nature of their construction materials, a vast majority of wickiups and other prehistoric wooden structures have vanished from the landscape...

Willard Frank Libby

Added by yongli on 12/28/2015 - 12:30, last changed on 09/10/2016 - 21:16
Willard Frank “Bill” Libby (1908–80) was a native Coloradan who won the Nobel Prize for inventing the radiocarbon dating method. Radiocarbon dating is one of the most commonly used dating techniques by archaeologists and other scientists across the world. Willard Libby was born in Grand Valley,...

William Bent

Added by yongli on 12/29/2015 - 11:23, last changed on 05/02/2017 - 15:39
William Bent (1809–69) played a pivotal role in the early development of Colorado. He initially came to the area as a fur trapper but became a liaison between whites and Native Americans via his trading fort on the Arkansas River near present-day La Junta . The Santa Fé Trail was the strategic...

William Larimer, Jr.

Added by yongli on 05/18/2016 - 15:35, last changed on 05/02/2017 - 15:35
General William Larimer, Jr. (1809–75), was a prominent nineteenth-century town promoter, prospector, and legislator in the Kansas and Colorado Territories. He is known for establishing the city of Denver . Larimer’s life serves as an example of the pitfalls of conducting business in the American...

Yucca House National Monument

Added by yongli on 05/02/2016 - 15:29, last changed on 05/02/2017 - 15:35
Yucca House National Monument was established to protect and preserve a large Ancestral Pueblo village south of Cortez in the southwestern corner of Colorado. Yucca House is an important Ancestral Pueblo village based on its size, unique configurations, and prominent, highly visible location in the...

Zebulon Montgomery Pike

Greg Vogl's picture
Added by Greg Vogl on 08/14/2014 - 08:45, last changed on 08/04/2017 - 13:52
In 1806–7, Captain Zebulon Montgomery Pike (1779-1813) led a US Army expedition to the southwestern reaches of the Louisiana Purchase, including the area that is now Colorado. Along with Lewis and Clark’s famous journey to the Pacific in 1804–6, Pike’s was one of many Jeffersonian-era expeditions...

Zia Pueblo

Added by yongli on 05/02/2016 - 15:02, last changed on 12/01/2016 - 08:29
The modern pueblo at Zia is one of nineteen in New Mexico that can trace some part of its history to residence in southwestern Colorado. Located on a mesa above the Jemez River about thirty-five miles northwest of Albuquerque, New Mexico, the pueblo of Zia has been the site of farming settlements...
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