Indian Delegation in White House Conservatory, 1863Share article toIndian Agent Samuel G. Colley stands in the upper left of this photo with interpreter William Simpson Smith. The white woman on the far right is thought to be Mary Todd Lincoln. The front row Indians are, left to right, War Bonnet (Cheyenne – killed at Sand Creek), Standing in the Water (Cheyenne - killed at Sand Creek), Lean Bear (Cheyenne – mistakenly killed by Colorado troops), Yellow Wolf (Kiowa). Second-row Indians are unidentified.
Indian Territory under Treaties of Fort Laramie (1851) and Fort Wise (1861)Share article toThe gray shaded area indicates the land area reserved for the Cheyenne and Arapaho under the 1851 Treaty of Fort Laramie and managed by the Upper Arkansas Indian Agency. The black shaded area indicates the reduced land area reserved for the Cheyenne and Arapaho ten years later under the Treaty of Fort Wise, supervised by Samuel G. Colley.
Gravestone of Samuel Gerish Colley
Stan Hoig, The Sand Creek Massacre (Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1961).
J. Jay Myers, "Sand Creek Massacre," History Net, Wild West, December 1998.
Dan L. Thrapp, Encyclopedia of Frontier Biography: Volume I: A-F (Lincoln, NE: Bison Books, 1991).
"Samuel Colley," DigPlanet.
Bureau of Indian Affairs, US Department of the Interior.
Jerome A. Greene and Douglas D. Scott, Finding Sand Creek: History, Archeology, and the 1864 Massacre Site (Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 2004).
Ari Kelman, A Misplaced Massacre: Struggling over the Memory of Sand Creek (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2013).
Harry Kelsey, "Background to Sand Creek," Colorado Magazine 45 (Fall 1968).
Konnie Lemay, "Native History: Proclamation Sets Course Toward Sand Creek Massacre," Indian Country Today, June 27, 2014.
Sand Creek Massacre National Historic Site
Elliot West, Contested Plains: Indians, Goldseekers, and the Rush to Colorado (Lawrence: University Press of Kansas, 1998).