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  • Ute Encampment, Denver

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    A Ute tipi camp near Denver, 1874. Note the pegs used to secure the base of the lodge in the foreground. William Henry Jackson photograph, History Colorado collections.
    Ute Encampment, Denver
  • Monitor Mesa Wickiup

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    Conical lodge frames or wickiups may have been covered with skins, brush, bark, or other materials. This tipi-like framework of poles is preserved in an old-growth forest in Montrose County, Colorado.
    Monitor Mesa Wickiup
  • A Spaced Stone Enclosure

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    The Keota Stone Circles Archaeological District in Weld County is listed on the National Register of Historic Places. Scores of roughly circular “tipi rings” such as this one have been documented there.
    A Spaced Stone Enclosure
  • Tipi Pictograph

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    This quite realistic pictograph of a tipi is part of a larger rock art panel at a rockshelter site in Las Animas County. Note the red painted band at the bottom of the lodge and the clearly defined smoke flaps painted in charcoal at the top.
    Tipi Pictograph



Leslie B. Davis, ed., “From Microcosm to Macrocosm: Advances in Tipi Ring Investigation and Interpretation,” Memoir 19, Plains Anthropologist 28, no. 102 (November 1983).

Raymond J. DeMallie, “Introduction,” in Handbook of North American Indians: Plains, vol. 13, pt. 1, ed. William C. Sturtevant (Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution Press, 2001).

Mary Lou Larson, Marcel Kornfeld, and George C. Frison, eds., Hell Gap: A Stratified Paleoindian Campsite at the Edge of the Rockies (Salt Lake City: University of Utah Press, 2009).

Reginald Laubin and Gladys Laubin, The Indian Tipi: Its History, Construction, and Use, 2nd ed. (Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1977).

Additional Information: 

Kimball M. Banks and J. Signe Snortland, “Every Picture Tells a Story: Historic Images, Tipi Camps, and Archaeology,” Plains Anthropologist 40, no. 152 (May 1995).

Ted J. Brasser, “The Tipi as an Element in the Emergence of Historic Plains Indian Nomadism,” Plains Anthropologist 27, no. 98, pt. 1 (November 1982).

Walter Stanley Campbell, “The Cheyenne Tipi,” American Anthropologist 17, no. 4, n.s. (October–December 1915).

Ken Deaver and Sherri Deaver, “Tipis,” Encyclopedia of the Great Plains, University of Nebraska­–Lincoln, 2011.

R. A. Flayharty and Elizabeth Ann Morris, “T-W-Diamond, A Stone Ring Site in Northern Colorado,” Plains Anthropologist 19, no. 65 (August 1974).

Paul Goble, Tipi: Home of the Nomadic Buffalo Hunters (Bloomington, Indiana: World Wisdom, 2007).

Tipis: Early ‘Mobile Homes,’” University of Texas at Austin.

Tipis-Tepees-Teepees,” Holley Arts.