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Mesa Verde National Park

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  • Cliff Palace Kiva

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    Kivas were used by many Puebloan for religious rituals and other ceremonies. The kivas at Mesa Verde are mostly round, subterranean rooms , although there are some kivas built above the ground while others differ architecturally.
    Cliff Palace Kiva
  • Cliff Canyon

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    Cliff Canyon in Mesa Verde National Park is home to the Cliff House Sandstone, which can be seen in two cliffs beneath the broad, green mesa. Canyons such as this allowed for Puebloans to build their dwellings in the stone itself.
    Cliff Canyon



Timothy A. Kohler and Mark D. Varien, Emergence and Collapse of Early Villages: Models of Central Mesa Verde Archaeology (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2012).

Timothy A. Kohler, Mark D. Varien, and Aaron M. Wright, eds., Leaving Mesa Verde: Peril and Change in the Thirteenth-Century Southwest (Tucson: University of Arizona Press, 2010).

David Grant Noble, The Mesa Verde World (Santa Fe, NM: School of American Research Press, 2006).

Scott G. Ortman, Winds from the North: Tewa Origins and Historical Anthropology (Salt Lake City: University of Utah Press, 2012).

Arthur Rohn, Mug House, Mesa Verde National Park, Colorado (Washington, DC: Archeological Research Series 7-D, National Park Service, 1971).

Richard H. Wilshusen, Gregson Schachner, and James R. Allison, eds., Crucible of Pueblos: The Early Pueblo Period in the Northern Southwest (Los Angeles: University of California, Cotsen Institute of Archaeology Press, 2012).

Additional Information: 

Mesa Verde Museum Association, Mesa Verde National Park: The First 100 Years (Golden, CO: Fulcrum, 2006).

National Park Service

Judith Reynolds and David Reynolds, Nordenskiöld of Mesa Verde (Self-published: Xlibris, 2006).

Duane A. Smith, Mesa Verde National Park: Shadows of the Centuries (Boulder: University Press of Colorado, 2002).