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Mountain Pine Beetle

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  • Photo 1

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    The gray trees in this picture are lodgepole pine killed by mountain pine beetle. This picture was taken near Willow Creek Pass in north-central Colorado in 2012, approximately 10 years after the outbreak began in this area.
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  • Photo 2

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    A dead mountain pine beetle at the base of a tree. The beetles are about the size of a grain of rice.
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    A mountain pine beetle being ‘pitched out’ after unsuccessfully attacking a tree.
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    Newly-established trees are prevalent in mountain pine beetle-attacked forests.
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Barbara J. Bentz, Jesse A. Logan, and Gene D. Amman, "Temperature-Dependent Development of the Mountain Pine Beetle (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) and Simulation of its Phenology," Canadian Entomologist 123 (September/October 1991).

Barbara J. Bentz, Jacques Régnière, Christopher Fettig, Matthew Hansen, Jane L. Hayes, Jeffrey A. Hicke, Rick G. Kelsey, Jose F. Negron, and Steven J. Seybold, "Climate Change and Bark Beetles of the Western United States and Canada: Direct and Indirect Effects," Bioscience 60 (September 2010).

Ann C. Allaye Chan-McLeod, "A Review and Synthesis of the Effects of Unsalvaged Mountain-Pine-Beetle-Attacked Stands on Wildlife and Implications for Forest Management," BC Journal of Ecosystem Management 7 (2006).

Robert M. Hubbard, Charles C. Rhoades, Kelly Elder, and Jose F. Negron, "Changes in Transpiration and Foliage Growth in Lodgepole Pine Trees Following Mountain Pine Beetle Attack and Mechanical Girdling," Forest Ecology and Management 289 (2013).

Daniel S. Jarvis and Dominik Kulakowski, "Long-Term History and Synchrony of Mountain Pine beetle Outbreaks in Lodgepole Pine Forests," Journal of Biogeography 42, no. 6 (June 2015).

Jennifer G. Klutsch, Jose F. Negron, Sheryl L. Costello, Charles C. Rhoades, Dan R. West, John Popp, and Rick Caissie, "Stand Characteristics and Downed Woody Debris Accumulations Associated with a Mountain Pine Beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins) Outbreak in Colorado," Forest Ecology and Management 258 (2009).

Kathy Lewis and Doug Thompson, "Degradation of Wood in Standing Lodgepole Pine Killed by Mountain Pine Beetle," Wood and Fiber Science 43 (2011).

Russel G. Mitchell and Haiganoush K. Preisler, "Fall Rate of Lodgepole Pine Killed by the Mountain Pine Beetle in Central Oregon," Western Journal of Applied Forestry 13 (1998).

Daniel G. Neary, Carole C. Klopatek, Leonard F. DeBano, and Peter F. Folliott, "Fire Effects on Belowground Sustainability: A Review and Synthesis," Forest Ecology and Management 122 (1999).

Wesley G. Page, Martin E. Alexander, and Michael J. Jenkins, "Wildfire's Resistance to Control in Mountain Pine Beetle–Attacked Lodgepole Pine Forests," Forestry Chronicle 89 (November/December 2013).

Kenneth F. Raffa, Brian H. Aukema, Barbara J. Bentz, Allan L. Carroll, Jeffrey A. Hicke, Monica G. Turner, and William H. Romme, "Cross-Scale Drivers of Natural Disturbances Prone to Anthropogenic Amplification: The Dynamics of Bark Beetle Eruptions," BioScience 58 (June 2008).

Charles C. Rhoades, James H. McCutchan, Jr., Leigh A. Cooper, L.A., David Clow, Thomas M. Detmer, Jennifer S. Briggs, John D. Stednick, Thomas T. Veblen, Rachel M. Ertz, Gene E. Likens, and William M. Lewis, Jr., "Biogeochemistry of Beetle-Killed Forests: Explaining a Weak Nitrate Response," Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 110 (January 2013).

Tania Schoennagel, Thomas T. Veblen, and William H. Romme, "The Interaction of Fire, Fuels, and Climate Across Rocky Mountain Forests," BioScience 54 (July 2004).

Martin Simard, William H. Romme, Jacob M. Griffin, and Monica G. Turner, "Do Mountain Pine Beetle Outbreaks Change the Probability of Active Crown Fire in Lodgepole Pine Forest?" Ecological Monographs 81 (2011).

Stephen W. Taylor and Allan L. Carroll, "Disturbance, Forest Age, and Mountain Pine Beetle Outbreak Dynamics in BC: A Historical Perspective," Natural Resources Canada: Canadian Forest Service, Pacific Forestry Center (Mountain Pine Beetle Symposium: Challenges and Solutions, Kelowna, British Columbia, October 30-31, 2003).

US Forest Service, "Western Bark Beetle Strategy: Human Safety, Recovery, and Resiliency," July 11, 2011.

N. D. Wygant, "Effects of Low Temperature on the Black Hills beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae)," unpublished report (US Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Range and Experiment Station, 1942).

Additional Information: 

Colorado State University Extension, "Mountain Pine Beetle."

Natural Resources Canada, "Mountain Pine Beetle."

National Park Service, "Forest Health: Mountain Pine Beetle."

United States Forest Service, "Mountain Pine Beetle Epidemic."