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Juan Antonio María de Rivera

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  • Juan Antonio María de Rivera

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    Artist’s conceptual image of Juan Rivera shown dressed in period costume, including a three-cornered hat, which probably demonstrated to Native Americans Rivera’s rank as a representative of the governor of New Mexico.
    Juan Antonio María de Rivera
  • Trading with Utes

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    Juan Rivera and his company trading with the Tabeguache Utes at Pissochi near present-day Naturita, Colorado in the fall of 1765.
    Trading with Utes
  • 1765 Expedition

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    General path of the Rivera expedition through western Colorado in 1765.
    1765 Expedition



Steven G. Baker, Rick Hendricks (translator), and Gail Carroll Sargent (illustrator), Juan Rivera’s Colorado‑1765: The First Spaniards Among the Ute and Paiute Indians on the Trails to Teguayo: The Comprehensive Illustrated Trail Study and Ethnohistory with the Original Rivera Journals and English Translations, in press (Lake City, CO: Western Reflections Publishing, 2016).

Additional Information: 

Steven G. Baker, “Trails, Trade, and West-Central Colorado’s Gateway Tradition: Ethnohistorical Observations,” Southwestern Lore 74 (Spring 2008).

Donald C. Cutter, “Forerunners of the Old Spanish Trail? I’ll Give You Six!” Spanish Traces 10 (Fall 2004).

Joseph P. Sánchez, Explorers, Traders, and Slavers: Forging the Old Spanish Trail (Salt Lake City: University of Utah Press, 1997).

National Park Service, “Old Spanish Trail Timeline,”.