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Walking Colorado: An Introduction to the Origins Section

Added by yongli on 01/20/2017 - 11:41, last changed on 03/16/2017 - 11:00
Hundreds of generations of Native American ancestors are represented in Colorado by scatters of artifacts along with the less portable evidence of shelter, the warmth of hearths, storage needs, and symbolic expression. We learn about them through archaeology and indigenous peoples’ oral traditions...

Adolph Coors

Added by yongli on 02/03/2017 - 21:43, last changed on 02/03/2017 - 21:46
Adolph Coors (1847–1929) immigrated to the United States in 1868 after serving as a brewery apprentice in western Germany and then in the Kingdom of Prussia. After working in Chicago breweries, he moved to Colorado in 1872 and purchased a bottling company. He transformed it into the Coors Brewing...

Alan Berg

Added by yongli on 08/30/2016 - 10:34, last changed on 12/02/2016 - 17:03
Alan Berg (1934–84) was an outspoken Denver radio broadcaster in the 1970s and 1980s known for his unapologetic attacks on the far right, religious extremism, and white supremacy. At the time of his assassination by the white supremacist group The Order in 1984, Berg was one of Denver ’s most...

Ancestral Puebloans of the Four Corners Region

Added by yongli on 05/09/2016 - 14:21, last changed on 09/08/2016 - 17:25
Formerly labeled Anasazi, the Ancestral Puebloan culture is the most widely known of the ancient cultures of Colorado. The people who built the cliff dwellings of Mesa Verde and the great houses of Chaco Canyon were subsistence farmers of corn, beans, and squash. The ruins of this culture date to...

Anna and Eugenia Kennicott

Added by yongli on 01/18/2017 - 15:49, last changed on 01/18/2017 - 15:52
Anna (1887–1963) and Eugenia Kennicott (1883–1934) grew up on a Colorado farm around the turn of the twentieth century and recorded their day-to-day lives in diaries and in rare photographic plates. Today, their chronicles of women’s experiences on a turn-of-the-century farm in the American west...

Apishapa Phase

Added by yongli on 08/20/2015 - 16:22, last changed on 03/17/2017 - 13:04
The Apishapa phase is the name given to distinctive archaeological sites found primarily in southeastern Colorado that Native Americans occupied between AD 1050 and 1450. The Apishapa phase is related to both contemporaneous and more recent archaeological sites located in the Texas and Oklahoma...

Arthur Carhart

Added by yongli on 05/06/2016 - 14:37, last changed on 12/01/2016 - 08:29
Arthur Hawthorne Carhart (1892–1978) was a novelist, US Forest Service (USFS) official, and landscape architect known for developing a commonsense, nonpartisan, and democratic approach to conservation and natural resource management. His legacy lives on today in the Arthur Carhart National...

Barney Ford

Added by Nick Johnson on 12/10/2015 - 14:54, last changed on 12/05/2016 - 14:36
Born into slavery in 1822, Barney Ford escaped to freedom and moved to Colorado in 1860. He soon became a successful businessman and an influential civic leader who pushed for Colorado statehood with suffrage for all. Ford died in Denver in 1902 and has been recognized for his contributions to the...

Beatrice Willard

Added by yongli on 02/03/2017 - 13:27, last changed on 02/03/2017 - 13:27
Dr. Beatrice Willard (1925–2003) was an internationally recognized tundra ecologist who made significant contributions to environmental policy in Colorado and the nation. Her research in the Colorado mountains established her as a well-known ecologist, educator, and negotiator. Early Life Beatrice...

Buckskin Charley

Added by yongli on 03/01/2016 - 16:41, last changed on 09/08/2016 - 18:41
Chief Buckskin Charley (1840–1936), whose Ute name was Sapiah, was the preeminent chief of the Mouache band of the Southern Ute Tribe beginning around 1870. He was born to a Mouache father and an Apache mother, perhaps in the vicinity of Tierra Amarilla, New Mexico. The name Buckskin Charley may...

Buffalo Soldiers

Added by yongli on 06/24/2016 - 15:38, last changed on 12/02/2016 - 17:01
The so-called Buffalo Soldiers were several African American cavalry and infantry regiments that operated in the American West during the late nineteenth century. While there is no evidence that the black troops themselves adopted it, the nickname Buffalo Soldiers is widely believed to have come...

Caroline Bancroft

Added by yongli on 05/13/2016 - 16:32, last changed on 12/01/2016 - 08:29
Caroline Bancroft (1900–85) was a prominent author, journalist, organizer, and socialite in twentieth-century Denver. Bancroft’s extensive writings on Colorado’s local history established the importance of the genre and served as an example for generations of historians who followed in her...

Carrie Welton

Added by yongli on 08/15/2016 - 14:33, last changed on 09/21/2016 - 11:48
Carrie Welton (1842–84) was a relatively well-known socialite and amateur mountaineer who climbed Colorado Fourteeners in the 1880s. When Welton perished during an ill-advised autumn ascent of Longs Peak in 1884, she became the focal point of a national discussion concerning backcountry safety and...

Charles Deaton

Added by yongli on 08/30/2016 - 11:17, last changed on 12/02/2016 - 17:03
Charles Deaton was an influential western American architect best known for his Sculptured House (better known as the Sleeper House ) in the hills around Denver . Deaton is remembered as a pioneering Colorado artist whose work was an example of architecture’s shifting visual aesthetic in the mid-...

Colorado Rockies

Added by yongli on 02/02/2017 - 15:54, last changed on 02/02/2017 - 15:54
The Colorado Rockies arrived in Denver in 1993 and is the only professional baseball team in the Rocky Mountain West. The Rockies compete in Major League Baseball’s National League West Division. Having made the MLB playoffs three times in their short history, the Rockies lost to the Boston Red Sox...

Colorow

Added by yongli on 01/23/2017 - 15:59, last changed on 01/23/2017 - 15:59
One of the best-known Ute leaders of the nineteenth century, Colorow (c. 1813–88) was involved in many significant events in Colorado history, from his first contact with white Americans during the Colorado Gold Rush to the Meeker Massacre and his namesake “ Colorow’s War ” of 1887. Colorow’s...

Dale H. Maple

Added by yongli on 01/17/2017 - 13:59, last changed on 01/17/2017 - 14:00
Private First Class Dale H. Maple (1920–2001) was stationed at Camp Hale near Leadville during World War II when he assisted in the escape of three German prisoners-of-war prisoners of war in February 1944. Following Maple’s arrest along with the escapees in Mexico, he underwent one of the most...

Damon Runyon

Added by yongli on 08/15/2016 - 16:02, last changed on 09/09/2016 - 09:28
Damon Runyon (1880–1946) was a newspaperman, political reporter, author, screenwriter, and playwright in the early 1900s. Best known for his work after leaving Colorado, particularly Guys and Dolls , Runyon was a prolific writer during his time in Colorado, working for many of the state’s...

David H. Moffat

Added by yongli on 01/30/2017 - 11:14, last changed on 01/30/2017 - 11:17
David Halliday Moffat (1839–1911) left a lasting impression on Colorado from his involvement in many industries, including banking, mining, and railroads. Through his civic involvement in Denver , Moffat helped the city develop financially and industrially. His most significant contribution to...

Dean Reed

Added by yongli on 06/15/2016 - 16:00, last changed on 03/08/2017 - 10:46
Dean Reed (1938–86) was a singer-songwriter and actor from Denver who enjoyed a stint of popularity in the 1960s and 1970s before experiencing a slow slide into obscurity by the end of his life. Best known for his time spent living and recording in the Soviet Union at the height of the Cold War,...

Delph E. Carpenter

Greg Vogl's picture
Added by Greg Vogl on 02/17/2015 - 16:44, last changed on 02/08/2017 - 10:58
Lawyer, state senator, and interstate streams commissioner, Delph E. Carpenter (1877-1951) had lasting impact on Colorado and the western United States through his concept of river compacts. In persuading other states to negotiate the first interstate river-sharing agreement, Carpenter was...

Denver Nuggets

Added by yongli on 02/22/2017 - 12:08, last changed on 02/22/2017 - 12:08
The Denver Nuggets, Colorado’s professional basketball team, compete in the National Basketball Association (NBA) as part of the Northwest Division in the association’s Western Conference. While an amateur-league team named the Denver Nuggets competed in the 1930s and 1940s, the current Nuggets...

Don Felipe Baca

Added by yongli on 05/06/2016 - 13:20, last changed on 09/09/2016 - 10:26
The Hispano farmer and sheep rancher Don Felipe de Jesus Baca (1829–74) was one of the first settlers of the Purgatoire River valley, one of the most important developers of Trinidad , and a member of the Colorado Territorial legislature. He is the namesake of Baca County in southeast Colorado...

Dr. Florence Rena Sabin

Added by yongli on 08/11/2016 - 15:42, last changed on 09/09/2016 - 10:26
One of the preeminent medical and scientific minds of the early twentieth century, Dr. Florence Rena Sabin (1871–1953) was a public servant devoted to improving public health. As the first woman to receive a full professorship at Johns Hopkins University, Sabin was also a successful woman in the...

Dr. Stanley Biber

Added by yongli on 08/30/2016 - 12:30, last changed on 09/09/2016 - 10:26
Stanley Biber (1923–2006) was a surgeon in Trinidad during the twentieth century who specialized in sex reassignment surgeries. His clinic, one of the first in the country to offer sex reassignment surgeries, grew in reputation thanks to its compassionate treatment of transsexual patients. Biber’s...

Earth Lodge

Added by yongli on 06/23/2016 - 16:33, last changed on 12/01/2016 - 08:29
An earth lodge is a distinctive type of timber-frame house built from the early 1400s to the late 1800s by a dozen different Plains Indian tribes. These massive circular structures, often encompassing 1,500 square feet or more, featured four large support posts arranged around a central fireplace...

Ellis Meredith

Added by yongli on 09/11/2015 - 15:43, last changed on 02/03/2017 - 22:06
Standing less than five feet tall and weighing around 100 pounds, Ellis Meredith was a tiny woman, but she took large strides to improve life for the women of Colorado. The daughter of a well-known suffragette and pioneer resident of Montana, Emily R. Meredith, Ellis understood the importance of...

Ellison Onizuka

Added by yongli on 01/31/2017 - 10:17, last changed on 01/31/2017 - 10:17
Ellison Onizuka (1946–86) was an astronaut for the US Space Shuttle program who earned degrees at the University of Colorado in Boulder before perishing in the 1986 Challenger shuttle disaster. Onizuka was Colorado’s highest-profile astronaut and is remembered today as an advocate for science...

Emily Elizabeth Wilson

Added by yongli on 08/30/2016 - 12:37, last changed on 12/01/2016 - 08:29
Emily Elizabeth “Emmy” Wilson (1902–63) was a well-known Colorado business owner, entrepreneur, and socialite who ran the Glory Hole Tavern, a popular establishment in Central City . Wilson and her tavern played an integral role in reviving the ex-mining town’s social and cultural scene, and for...

Enos Mills

Added by yongli on 10/06/2016 - 16:21, last changed on 12/02/2016 - 17:03
As a boy and as a man, Enos Mills (1870–1922) lived a remarkable life. His bond with nature and wildlife inspired him to overcome personal hardship and become a successful speaker, author, naturalist, businessman, and driving force behind the creation of Rocky Mountain Natio n al Park . Today,...

Estella Bergere Leopold

Added by yongli on 09/16/2015 - 14:59, last changed on 02/03/2017 - 22:09
Dr. Estella Leopold is a world-renowned paleobotanist who helped spearhead the 1969 fight to save Florissant Fossil Beds in Florissant, Colorado. She was the recipient of several awards during her career, including Conservationist of the Year (1969) from the Colorado Wildlife Federation, the Keep...

Fluted Points

Added by yongli on 12/29/2015 - 12:38, last changed on 09/09/2016 - 10:58
Fluted projectile points represent the earliest North American stone tool technology, although they comprise a small portion of the overall stone technology observed in the New World. These easily recognized spear points represent one form of technology used by the earliest human inhabitants of...

Folsom People

Added by yongli on 06/22/2016 - 14:59, last changed on 12/01/2016 - 08:29
Folsom groups, also called Folsom peoples or Folsom culture, occupied all of Colorado between about 13,000 and 12,000 years ago. They were not the first people in these areas, although they might have been the first in some newly unglaciated portions of the high Rockies. Nevertheless, Folsom...

Frank P. Marugg

Added by yongli on 08/31/2016 - 11:28, last changed on 12/02/2016 - 17:03
Frank Marugg (1887–1973) was an inventor who developed the “Denver Boot,” a device that immobilizes a vehicle for ticketing purposes. Despite a lifetime of pursuits in various other industries, the boot remains the most notable achievement of Marugg’s professional career. Still, his life story...

Fremont Culture

Added by yongli on 05/03/2016 - 15:31, last changed on 03/16/2017 - 07:39
Although it is on the eastern fringe of the area occupied by a people known to archaeology as the Fremont, Colorado is nevertheless important in the Fremont story, since clues to their origins and end are found there. Additionally, the presence of Fremont farmers had a profound influence on the...

Gene Cervi

Added by yongli on 03/30/2017 - 13:54, last changed on 03/30/2017 - 13:54
Gene Cervi (1906–70) was an influential Denver newspaperman, publisher, and politician who published one of the first business weeklies in the western United States. Known for his probing insights, razor wit, and short temper, Cervi’s journalism and political activism shaped Denver’s economic and...

George Bent

Added by yongli on 08/11/2016 - 16:23, last changed on 12/01/2016 - 08:29
George Bent (1843–1918) was a half-white, half-Native American soldier who fought in multiple battles for the Confederacy during the Civil War and for the Cheyenne people in various wars of the late nineteenth century. His life reflects the shifts in alliances and the balance of power in Colorado...

Ghost Dance

Added by yongli on 12/29/2015 - 12:16, last changed on 09/09/2016 - 11:40
Ghost Dances are key ceremonies within a broader Native American religious movement that developed in the late nineteenth century in response to the westward expansion of whites. By that time, most Colorado tribes lived on reservations outside of the state. The dances are performed to activate the...

Gray Goose Airways

Added by yongli on 08/31/2016 - 13:31, last changed on 12/02/2016 - 17:03
Denver’s history is full of innovation and success associated with the emergence of air travel, but perhaps just as many ventures failed. Though Gray Goose Airways was ultimately unsuccessful, founder Jonathan Edward Caldwell was doggedly persistent in its development and displayed an unwavering...

Gustaf Nordenskiöld and the Mesa Verde Region

Added by yongli on 08/20/2015 - 09:34, last changed on 01/31/2017 - 15:09
In 1891 the young Swedish scientist Gustaf Nordenskiöld (1868–95) arrived in Colorado, seeking both a cure for his tuberculosis and a look at the wonders of the West. His experiences over the next two years set in motion a series of events that would ultimately lead to the passage of the first...

Hannah Marie Wormington

Added by yongli on 11/19/2015 - 16:19, last changed on 09/09/2016 - 11:40
As a pioneering woman in a field dominated by men, Hannah Marie Wormington (1914–94) carved a scholarly niche for herself on the frontiers of American archaeology. She was a larger-than-life figure whose impact went far beyond the dozens of publications she produced to include mentorship for many...

Harry Buckwalter

Added by yongli on 05/06/2016 - 14:14, last changed on 03/17/2017 - 09:22
Photojournalist, radio reporter, and film producer Harry Buckwalter (1867–1930) is considered Colorado’s first photojournalist. He was also one of the great technological innovators of the nineteenth- and early twentieth-century American West, known for his advances in X-ray photography, early...

Henrietta “Nettie” Bromwell

Added by yongli on 09/21/2016 - 14:13, last changed on 12/01/2016 - 08:28
Henrietta “Nettie” Bromwell (1859–1946) was a prominent artist and author active in Denver’s social scene during the early to mid-1900s. In addition to her artistic success, she was a Denver socialite. Today, Bromwell’s legacy is her writings and artwork, especially landscape paintings. Early Life...

Henry Teller

Added by yongli on 08/12/2016 - 14:09, last changed on 09/09/2016 - 11:40
Henry Moore Teller (1830–1914) was a successful Colorado businessman, lawyer, and politician. His business and legal interests, which included mining and helping to organize the Colorado Central Railroad , were surpassed only by his political achievements. Teller served five full terms as US...

Horace Tabor

Added by yongli on 08/20/2015 - 13:32, last changed on 03/17/2017 - 10:39
Horace “Silver King” Tabor (1830–99) rose from a smalltime prospector to one of the wealthiest men in Colorado because of his luck in Leadville’s silver mines. He became tabloid fodder through his romantic liaisons with Baby Doe Tabor and his fall from power when the United States changed to the...

Jewish Colony at Cotopaxi

Added by yongli on 10/06/2016 - 16:43, last changed on 12/02/2016 - 17:01
In 1882 a group of Jewish immigrants from Eastern Europe settled at the Cotopaxi Colony. The colony was the result of persistent efforts by several prominent American Jews and Jewish organizations to offer a better life for those fleeing the Pale of Settlement in the western region of Imperial...

John C. Frémont

Added by yongli on 08/03/2016 - 15:52, last changed on 12/01/2016 - 08:29
John Charles Frémont (1813–90) was an American explorer and cartographer for the US Topographical Engineers who crossed Colorado on various expeditions. Between 1842 and 1853, Frémont led five western expeditions with numerous objectives. He was also involved in the Mexican-American War (1846–48)...

John W. Gunnison

Added by yongli on 08/02/2016 - 16:26, last changed on 12/01/2016 - 08:29
John Williams Gunnison (1812–53) was a nineteenth-century US Army officer and explorer. In 1853 he was charged with finding a railroad route across the Rocky Mountains, and while carrying out his mission he explored the Western Slope of Colorado. His expedition moved on to Utah, where he was killed...

Juan Antonio María de Rivera

Added by yongli on 03/01/2016 - 15:44, last changed on 03/16/2017 - 10:16
Juan Antonio María de Rivera (1738–?) was a Spaniard and the first Euro-American to intensively explore the territory that eventually became the state of Colorado. In 1765 he made two trips into western Colorado from New Mexico, traveling as far as the Gunnison River in Delta County. Along the way...

Julie Penrose

Added by yongli on 08/21/2015 - 12:35, last changed on 03/08/2017 - 13:23
Julie Villiers Lewis McMillan Penrose (1870–1956) was one of the primary benefactors of Colorado Springs institutions in the interwar years. Her husband, multimillionaire Spencer (“Speck”) Penrose , profited from Cripple Creek gold and Utah copper in the early twentieth century. He used his wealth...

Justina Ford

Added by yongli on 01/18/2017 - 15:12, last changed on 01/18/2017 - 15:22
Justina L. Ford (1871–1952) was a medical pioneer and Denver’s first licensed African American female doctor. Ford is best known for her obstetrics and pediatric work in Denver’s Five Points community. Patients knew Dr. Ford as “the Baby Doctor,” and it is estimated that she delivered over 7,000...

Kit Carson

Added by yongli on 03/14/2016 - 14:16, last changed on 09/09/2016 - 12:35
The remarkable life of Christopher “Kit” Carson (1809–68) represents a broad sweep of Western American history in the early-to-mid nineteenth century. Carson was a Rocky Mountain fur trapper , a guide and scout for the US Army Corps of Topographical Engineers, rancher, Indian agent in New Mexico...

Koshare Scouts

Added by yongli on 11/16/2015 - 12:55, last changed on 09/09/2016 - 12:35
The Koshare Scouts is primarily made up of Boy Scout troop 2230 in La Junta, Colorado, that has studied Native American lore and performed tribal rituals since the 1930s. This imitative white group is part of a long American history of “playing Indian.” In the twentieth century, groups like the...

Lafayette Head

Added by yongli on 08/21/2015 - 16:08, last changed on 09/09/2016 - 12:35
Major Lafayette Head (1825–97) was an Indian agent to the Ute tribe for nine years after serving in the Mexican American War. In 1877, he became the first lieutenant governor of Colorado. He was influential in the early development of towns across the San Luis Valley. Born in Hunter County,...

Left Hand (Niwot)

Added by yongli on 03/04/2016 - 09:41, last changed on 01/20/2017 - 12:16
Chief Left Hand (1820s–64) was a prominent Arapaho leader in the mid-1800s, a tumultuous period in Colorado history that followed the 1858 discovery of gold near present-day Denver , on the traditional lands of the Arapaho and Cheyenne . Diplomat, negotiator, linguist, and fluent English speaker,...

Lewis B. France

Added by yongli on 09/21/2016 - 13:55, last changed on 12/01/2016 - 08:28
Lewis B. France (1833–1907) was a nationally renowned nature writer in the late 1800s and early 1900s, best known for his works on fly-fishing. France represented an emerging trend in the American West—the melding of natural resource utilization, tourism, and boosterism to create the industry known...

Louis Vasquez

Added by yongli on 10/06/2016 - 16:37, last changed on 12/02/2016 - 17:03
Louis Vasquez (1798–1868) was a fur trapper and mountain man active in Colorado during the 1820s and 1830s. He reportedly constructed Fort Convenience and a hunter’s cabin that predated the majority of settlement in the region. One of the Colorado fur trade ’s more successful trappers, Vasquez is...

Mari Sandoz

Added by yongli on 08/12/2016 - 15:07, last changed on 09/09/2016 - 13:36
Mari Sandoz (1896–1966) was a popular author in the early- to mid-twentieth century whose works of both fiction and non-fiction focused on life in the Rocky Mountain West. Sandoz’s work represents some of the most widely read literature concerning the American West and has done much to influence...

Mary Cronin

Added by yongli on 09/21/2016 - 14:04, last changed on 12/01/2016 - 08:29
Mary Cronin (1893–1982) was an active member of the Colorado Mountain Club (CMC) and the first woman to summit each of Colorado’s Fourteeners . Today, Cronin is best known for her accomplishments in the backcountry, and the CMC she helped develop continues its tradition of guiding people into the...

Max Goldberg

Added by yongli on 08/15/2016 - 16:08, last changed on 09/09/2016 - 13:36
Max Goldberg (1911–72) was a pioneer of early television broadcasting and a television personality in the 1950s and 1960s. Goldberg worked to promote the growth of television in Denver , and his weekly talk show On the Spot set the stage for television’s early success in the local market. Today,...

Minnie Reynolds Scalabrino

Added by yongli on 05/16/2016 - 11:48, last changed on 12/01/2016 - 08:29
Minnie Reynolds Scalabrino (1865–1936) was a newspaperwoman, candidate for political office, and lifelong suffragette in the late nineteenth century and early twentieth. She played an important role in the women’s suffrage movement in Colorado and worked tirelessly in other states to secure the...

Mistanta (Owl Woman)

Added by yongli on 11/16/2015 - 13:44, last changed on 09/10/2016 - 06:19
Mistanta (Mis-stan-stur, ca. 1810–47), also known as Owl Woman, was the Southern Cheyenne wife of the American trader William Bent . Born about 1810, she is credited with helping maintain good relations between the white settlers and the Native Americans of the Colorado plains. As the eldest...

Nisei Sisters

Added by yongli on 09/29/2016 - 14:39, last changed on 09/29/2016 - 14:41
Three of the Shitara sisters, known in the contemporary press as “the Nisei Sisters,” were prisoners at the Amache concentration camp who helped two Germans escape from a nearby prisoner-of-war camp. During their trial, the third treason trial of World War II, the sisters’ race, class, and sex all...

Northern Ute People (Uintah and Ouray Reservation)

Added by yongli on 08/20/2015 - 15:20, last changed on 09/10/2016 - 06:19
Although the Ute Indian Tribe (Uintah and Ouray reservation) is the official designation of the tribe today, its members are frequently referred to as Northern Utes to distinguish them from the Southern Ute Indian Tribe and the Ute Mountain Ute Tribe . The Ute Indian Tribe’s reservation is located...

Oliver Toussaint Jackson

Added by yongli on 09/29/2016 - 14:47, last changed on 12/02/2016 - 17:03
Oliver Toussaint “O. T.” Jackson (1862–1948) was an entrepreneur and prominent member of black communities in Denver and Boulder during the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. In 1910 he founded Dearfield , an-all black agricultural settlement some twenty-five miles southeast of Greeley...

Ouray

Added by yongli on 02/03/2017 - 11:37, last changed on 02/03/2017 - 11:39
Ouray (1833–80), whose name means “Arrow” in the Ute language, was a leader of the Tabeguache (Uncompahgre) band of Ute Indians in Colorado during the late nineteenth century. Even though Ouray had no ultimate authority over Colorado’s Utes and spoke little English, the US government assigned him...

Painter Family

Added by yongli on 01/23/2017 - 11:00, last changed on 01/23/2017 - 11:00
The Painter was a prosperous ranching family in Colorado during the early 1900s. Even though ranching went into universal decline following a brutal winter in 1886, the Painter family remained successful due to equal parts luck, persistence, and scientific management of their cattle herds. They...

Paleo-Indian Period

Added by yongli on 05/02/2016 - 14:08, last changed on 12/01/2016 - 08:29
The Paleo-Indian period is the era from the end of the Pleistocene (the last Ice Age) to about 9,000 years ago (7000 BC), during which the first people migrated to North and South America. This period is seen through a glass darkly: Paleo-Indian sites are few and scattered, and the material from...

Plains Woodland

Added by yongli on 02/25/2016 - 14:13, last changed on 09/10/2016 - 06:43
The Plains Woodland period covers approximately a thousand years of Colorado prehistory across a large portion of the state. Plains Woodland describes the groups of people occupying much of the western plains from present-day Nebraska and Kansas, west of the Missouri River, to the eastern plains of...

Pueblo of Santa Ana–Tamaya

Added by yongli on 06/27/2016 - 15:56, last changed on 12/01/2016 - 08:29
The Pueblo of Santa Ana is one of the seven Keres-speaking Pueblos that currently inhabit the state of New Mexico. The ruins of the homes of the current inhabitants’ ancestors can be found in what is now Mesa Verde National Park in southwestern Colorado. Archaeological data and pueblo oral history...

Ralph Carr

Added by yongli on 10/06/2016 - 16:46, last changed on 12/02/2016 - 17:03
Ralph Lawrence Carr (1887–1950) was governor of Colorado from 1939 to 1943. Carr is remembered for his outspoken criticism of the federal government’s internment of Japanese Americans during World War II, even though a regional concentration camp, Amache , operated inside his state’s borders. His...

Rev. John O. Ferris

Added by yongli on 09/21/2016 - 14:49, last changed on 09/21/2016 - 14:49
The Reverend John O. Ferris (d. 1942) was a spiritual leader in Trinidad during the Coalfield War and Ludlow Massacre of 1914. Ferris was one of the few people permitted to search the ruined Ludlow tent city for the bodies of slain miners, women, and children, and his account of the days after the...

Rev. Thornton R. Sampson

Added by yongli on 09/21/2016 - 14:53, last changed on 12/01/2016 - 08:29
The Reverend Thornton R. Sampson (1852–1915) was an important religious figure and educator in Texas who disappeared on a hike in the Rocky Mountains in 1915. Sampson’s disappearance received national coverage. The massive search effort launched by his wife was one of the largest ever, though it...

Richard Wetherill

Added by yongli on 10/22/2015 - 10:53, last changed on 12/01/2016 - 08:29
Richard Wetherill (1858–1910) was a nineteenth-century rancher and explorer who made some of the most significant Ancestral Pueblo archaeological discoveries in Colorado and the Four Corners area. He brought these findings to the attention of the general public and led many expeditions that...

Robert S. Roeschlaub

Added by yongli on 05/16/2016 - 15:04, last changed on 12/01/2016 - 08:29
Robert Roeschlaub (1843–1923) was Colorado’s first officially licensed architect, working in Denver during the early settlement era. Roeschlaub played a central role in defining the city’s building code, which has affected the development of Denver’s built environment through the present. Today,...

Rodolfo “Corky” Gonzales

Added by yongli on 01/17/2017 - 12:33, last changed on 01/17/2017 - 12:37
Rodolfo “Corky” Gonzales (1928–2005) was a prominent figure in the Chicano Movement in Denver in the 1960s and 1970s. He also had ties to the greater Civil Rights Movement. In addition to his activist work, Gonzales had multifaceted careers in boxing, politics, and poetry, and left a lasting legacy...

Roger Wolcott Toll

Added by yongli on 08/03/2016 - 11:11, last changed on 09/10/2016 - 06:43
Roger Wolcott Toll (1883–1936) was a mountaineer, author, and early employee of the National Park Service (NPS), serving as superintendent of Mt. Rainier, Rocky Mountain , and Yellowstone National Parks before his untimely death in a car accident in 1936. Toll’s career is an example of effective...

Ruth Underhill

Added by yongli on 05/16/2016 - 15:40, last changed on 09/10/2016 - 06:43
Ruth Underhill (1883–1984) was a prominent anthropologist in the mid- to-late twentieth century, and one of the first female anthropologists to reach the stature regularly enjoyed by male colleagues. As a professor at the University of Denver later in life, Underhill published dozens of works on...

Saco Rienk DeBoer

Added by yongli on 05/16/2016 - 15:54, last changed on 09/10/2016 - 06:43
Saco Rienk DeBoer (1883–1974) was a prolific Denver -based landscape architect and city planner in the early twentieth century. DeBoer played a significant role in the development of Denver’s built environment, particularly the city’s parks and the establishment of its zoning codes. His work...

Sadie Likens

Added by yongli on 09/21/2016 - 15:16, last changed on 09/21/2016 - 15:18
Sadie Likens (c. 1840–1920) was a prominent officer of the court in Denver’s formative period, served as Colorado’s first prison matron, and was also known for her charitable work on behalf of the Women’s Christian Temperance Union and other women’s organizations. Before losing her job as prison...

Samuel Gerish Colley

Added by yongli on 10/21/2015 - 15:28, last changed on 09/10/2016 - 06:43
Holding political offices in Wisconsin and Colorado throughout his life, Samuel G. Colley (1807–90) is best known for serving as Indian Agent for the Upper Arkansas Indian Agency from 1860 to 1865. He was responsible for managing the Cheyenne and Arapaho prior to and during the Colorado War (1863–...

Saul Halyve

Added by yongli on 08/12/2016 - 16:20, last changed on 09/10/2016 - 07:05
Saul Halyve was a Hopi distance-running champion raised near Grand Junction who exploded onto the athletic scene in the early 1900s. Although Halyve would never compete in an Olympics due to a multitude of factors, his accomplishments match and possibly surpass those of other famous Native American...

Sopris Phase

Added by yongli on 11/03/2015 - 10:35, last changed on 03/16/2017 - 11:30
Archaeologists use the term Sopris phase to refer to unique Native American sites found only on the Purgatoire River west of Trinidad, Colorado, and on the upper tributaries of the Canadian River west of Raton and Cimarron, New Mexico (Fig. 1). Sopris people were the only indigenous farmers who...

Spencer Penrose

Added by yongli on 08/21/2015 - 14:19, last changed on 02/24/2017 - 16:43
Spencer Penrose (1865–1939) was a businessman, miner, entrepreneur, philanthropist, and investor who worked primarily in the Pikes Peak region. Penrose had assets in Colorado, Utah, Arizona, and Kansas, including mines and real estate properties. He is most notable for owning the C.O.D. mine in...

The Archaic Period in Colorado

Added by yongli on 08/21/2015 - 14:07, last changed on 09/10/2016 - 20:53
The Archaic period is an era in the human history of Colorado dating from ca. 6500 BC–AD 200. It is one of the three prehistoric periods used by archaeologists to characterize broad cultural changes that occurred throughout the Americas. It was preceded by the Paleo-Indian period (ca. 11,500–7000...

The Formative Period in Prehistory

Added by yongli on 11/03/2015 - 10:09, last changed on 03/16/2017 - 11:33
The Formative is the last of several periods in a sequence of cultural development that traces the overall progression from stone-tool-using, hunter- gatherer societies to fully developed agricultural societies. The process that occurred is analogous to the Old World’s “Neolithic Revolution.” It is...

The Gateway Tradition

Added by yongli on 11/13/2015 - 09:32, last changed on 03/16/2017 - 07:46
The Gateway tradition refers to a set of archaeological sites within western Montrose and San Miguel Counties, Colorado, that appear similar to Pueblo II –period (AD 900–1150) sites to the south in the core homeland of the Ancestral Puebloans (Figs. 1 and 2). The sites in Montrose and San Miguel...

The Tenth Mountain Division

Added by yongli on 11/16/2015 - 13:11, last changed on 03/17/2017 - 10:47
The Tenth Mountain Division (hereafter, the Tenth), was US Army division created in 1941. The Allies took notice of a Finnish division of soldiers on skis that defeated and embarrassed a larger and better-equipped invading Soviet force during the Winter War of 1939. Inspired by Finland’s success,...

Thomas E. Ketchum

Added by yongli on 09/21/2016 - 15:46, last changed on 09/21/2016 - 15:58
Thomas “Black Jack” Ketchum was a famous outlaw in the late 1800s who, along with his brother Sam and their gang, was responsible for a number of high-profile robberies and murders. While his criminal career achieved great notoriety, it was Ketchum’s eventual hanging, which was badly botched by New...

Tree-Ring Dating

Added by yongli on 02/25/2016 - 13:19, last changed on 09/10/2016 - 21:06
Tree-ring dating is formally known as “dendrochronology” (literally, the study of tree time). It is the science of assigning calendar-year dates to the growth rings of trees, and Colorado figures prominently in its development and application in archaeology and other disciplines. Uses Tree-ring...

Upper Republican and Itskari Cultures

Added by yongli on 10/22/2015 - 15:03, last changed on 09/10/2016 - 21:06
Upper Republican is a name archaeologists use for a prehistoric cultural group that occupied the upper Republican River area in northeast Colorado, western Nebraska, northern Kansas, and southeast Wyoming from AD 1100–1300. As a phase of a larger cultural tradition, the Central Plains tradition,...

Walter Paepcke

Added by yongli on 11/16/2015 - 12:59, last changed on 03/17/2017 - 10:24
Walter P. Paepcke, a Chicago businessman, was pivotal in developing Aspen into a resort known for its exceptional skiing and as a hub for intellectuals, artists, politicians, and celebrities. Paepcke’s efforts have made Aspen stand out among Colorado’s many ski towns and resorts. Born on June 29,...

Wayne Aspinall

Added by yongli on 08/01/2016 - 14:56, last changed on 11/30/2016 - 15:19
At the memorial service for long-time congressman Wayne Aspinall in 1983, Colorado Governor Richard Lamm said, “you can’t take a drink of water in Colorado without remembering Wayne Aspinall.” Wayne Norviel Aspinall (1896–1983) was born in Ohio and moved with his family to Palisade , Colorado, in...

Willard Frank Libby

Added by yongli on 12/28/2015 - 12:30, last changed on 09/10/2016 - 21:16
Willard Frank “Bill” Libby (1908–80) was a native Coloradan who won the Nobel Prize for inventing the radiocarbon dating method. Radiocarbon dating is one of the most commonly used dating techniques by archaeologists and other scientists across the world. Willard Libby was born in Grand Valley,...

William Bent

Added by yongli on 12/29/2015 - 11:23, last changed on 12/01/2016 - 08:29
William Bent (1809–69) played a pivotal role in the early development of Colorado. He initially came to the area as a fur trapper but became a liaison between whites and Native Americans via his trading fort on the Arkansas River near present-day La Junta . The Santa Fé Trail was the strategic...

William F. “Buffalo Bill” Cody

Added by yongli on 09/21/2016 - 16:06, last changed on 03/08/2017 - 13:00
William F. “Buffalo Bill” Cody (1846–1917) was neither born in Colorado nor lived in the state. In death, however, he became one of its most famous residents. Cody’s first experience in Colorado came in 1859, when he was a thirteen-year-old participant in the Colorado Gold Rush . Like many other...

William Jackson Palmer

Added by yongli on 08/01/2016 - 13:33, last changed on 09/10/2016 - 21:16
William Jackson Palmer (1836–1909) was a Civil War general, railroad tycoon, and founder of Colorado Springs . Though a Quaker from Delaware, Palmer fought for the Union Army during the Civil War. After the war, he moved west and became a civil engineer and philanthropist who played an integral...

William Larimer, Jr.

Added by yongli on 05/18/2016 - 15:35, last changed on 03/16/2017 - 11:52
General William Larimer, Jr. (1809–75), was a prominent nineteenth-century town promoter, prospector, and legislator in the Kansas and Colorado Territories. He is known for establishing the city of Denver . Larimer’s life serves as an example of the pitfalls of conducting business in the American...

William “Bat” Masterson

Added by yongli on 01/17/2017 - 13:06, last changed on 01/17/2017 - 13:06
William Barclay “Bat” Masterson (1853–1921) was a US marshal whose life and work in the American west during the mid-to-late 1800s granted him legendary status in the region’s folklore. In Colorado, where he spent several years during the 1880s, Masterson’s run-ins with the law and other important...

William “Cement Bill” Williams

Added by yongli on 08/15/2016 - 15:55, last changed on 03/23/2017 - 11:02
William “Cement Bill” Williams (1868–1945) was a prominent contractor, political agitator, and personality in Golden during the early 1900s. Williams’s tireless campaigning brought crucial road construction to Golden, much of which he built himself. Today, Williams’s legacy as a businessman and the...

Women in Early Colorado

Added by yongli on 05/06/2016 - 15:01, last changed on 12/01/2016 - 08:29
In nineteenth- and early twentieth-century Colorado, women’s labor was often vital to a family’s economic survival. Historian Katherine Harris demonstrated in her study of Logan and Washington Counties that women’s earnings from butter, eggs, and the garden often provided much of a farm family’s...

Women's Suffrage Movement

Added by yongli on 05/06/2016 - 15:15, last changed on 03/30/2017 - 13:25
The women’s suffrage movement was a sociopolitical movement in the late nineteenth century that secured voting rights for Colorado women by state referendum in 1893. The movement’s success made Colorado the first state to enact women’s suffrage by popular referendum. Origins On July 4, 1876,...

Wonderbound

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Added by Greg Vogl on 07/15/2015 - 14:39, last changed on 09/10/2016 - 21:16
Based in Denver, Wonderbound was established in 2002 and has quickly grown into the second-largest professional dance company in Colorado. Originally called Ballet Nouveau Colorado and affiliated with a Broomfield-based dance school of the same name, in 2012–13 the company split with the dance...

Zebulon Montgomery Pike

Greg Vogl's picture
Added by Greg Vogl on 08/14/2014 - 08:45, last changed on 12/01/2016 - 08:29
In 1806–7, Captain Zebulon Montgomery Pike (1779-1813) led a US Army expedition to the southwestern reaches of the Louisiana Purchase, including the area that is now Colorado. Along with Lewis and Clark’s famous journey to the Pacific in 1804–6, Pike’s was one of many Jeffersonian-era expeditions...
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